Prostate Health Sensor
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Prostate Health Sensor
Prostate Cancer and Genetics
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Section 1: Prostate Cancer test
Chapter 25. Prostate cancer and genetics. This a genetic test for men who want to know about prostate cancer risk as well as prostate hyperplasia, which is basically an enlargement of the prostate and it is not actually cancer yet. This product is shown here in the product overview. As you can see here, it is suitable for preventing these diseases, for early diagnosis to catch it early and for optimized treatment. Prostate cancer and prostate hyperplasia are influenced by ten different genetic variations. Each one of these genetic variations can either increase the risk or cannot increase the risk. By looking at all of these together, we can create a risk profile for the person. These are the genetic variations that we test. As you might have seen in other trainings, this here is the gene name, this here is kind of like the catalogue number of the genetic variation that we analyze. It is the unique ID for the genetic variation and this is the genetic letter change. Normally, this gene at this genetic variation location has a G and it is changed into an A. This was cut out from the report.
If you look at each of these genes in detail, you can actually find that this exact table taken from the report and you can have an insight into the science behind it. First, you see TCF2, the short name for the transcription factor 2. As I said, this is the catalogue number, a short explanation of what this gene does. Then, there are three different possibilities. An A A genotype means that,because every person has two copies of every gene with some exceptions, in this case it is A A in both, so both genes have an A. It could be that both genes have a G at this location or one has an A and one has a G. These are the three possible results. In case you want to know more about this, do check out the training for simple disease risk statistics. This person here with an X has a G G genotype. Twenty six percent of the population (26%) have the same genotype, i.e. about a third of the population has the same. In this case, it means no increased risk for prostate cancer. If you have an A and a G, which is more than half of the population, it also means no increased risk. If the person has an A A, it means that the risk isoddsratio 1.4.
If you do not know what odds ratio means, I would also recommend the disease risk statistics training and you will learn everything about it. So, the risk is 1.4 that of a person with optimal genes. Here are the scientific references for it. This is just one of the ten genes. If we look at the next one, again there are different genetic letters that could be present. Nineteen percent (19%) have an increased risk of prostate cancer. This is 1.28 fold risk, i.e. 28% higher risk. The references here show the different genetic papers that have looked into this genetic variation and found this association with increased risk. Looking at the next gene, it is actually not a gene. The 8q24 means it is on the chromosome 8 at location 24. It is usually not a gene in this position but it is some important genetic code. In this genetic code, there is a genetic variation that has been found to influence the risk. You see five percent (5%) have an A/C genotype, a 1.53 risk. So, that is fifty percent (50%) higher risk. One percent (1%) has an A/A genotype and also has fifty three (53%) higher risk. The next gene is the vitamin D receptor. The body produces vitamin D when you are exposed to sunlight. The vitamin D receptor is necessary to recognize this vitamin D to let it establish its functions. Fifty six percent (56%) have two Cs (C/C) in the vitamin D receptor gene. Then, they have no increased risk. Thirty six percent (36%) have 1.11 fold risk. That is eleven percent (11%) higher. Actually, eight percent (8%) have a very higher risk at 2.5 times risk.
Therefore, having a genetic variation in this receptor reduces the effect of vitamin D and vitamin D deficiency is a critical risk factor for the development of cancer. Alright. These are just some examples. If you are interested, take out the report where you can find detailed information for everyone of these ten genes. Here you can see a summary. The optimal genetic profile means that all ten genes have the optimal genetic version of the genetic variation compared to the worst genetic profile. This is a relative risk of 1 and the highest risk has a relative risk of 359. If we draw a line from a low odds ratio of 1 to 359, any person will be anywhere in-between. These genetic variations are not uncommon. If you look at the general population, you will find that almost everyone has at least some of this genetic risk. Some people have more than the average and other people have less than the average, which means that some people have a higher risk than the general population and other people are actually protected. We know from studies that the average risk is an odds ratio of six. Then, if you have an odds ratio of 6, you have the same risk as the general population. If it is higher you have a higher risk and if lower you actually have a protective effect.
Section 2: Prevention
As I said, we have three functions; prevention, early detection and better treatment for prostate cancer. Let us look at the prevention side. There are a number of risk factors in your lifestyle that can increase the risk. That should be avoided especially if the genetic risk is high. One of the prevention advices and things that we would have in the prevention program is avoid high calories and high fat intake or animal products. Then, you should practice regular exercise. This all reduces the risk of prostate cancer. Avoid alcohol as a risk factor. Follow a diet rich in vitamin D. As I said, vitamin D can be produced through sunlight on your skin, so do some outdoor activities. However, vitamin D can be taken in through diet, especially in sea fish it is quite common. So, if you follow these preventive advices and this should be more detailed than I have shown you here, then you can reduce other risk factors that would also increase the risk and thereby work against your increased protection of the genetic risk.
Section 3: Early Detection
The next part is early detection. This goes for all cancers. If it is detected very earlier on, it is usually very well treatable. Detected too late, it has already metastasized, which means that cancer has spread and has started to invade other tissues. Therefore, early detection is critically important. What people should do for early detection, especially if the risk is particularly high, they should go to more frequent earlier and more thorough prostate examinations to find out if prostate cancer is developing. There are a number of ways a doctor can check this up. One of them is the PS8 measurement in blood. There are some other ways of keeping an eye on the prostate. You should also be aware of the symptoms of prostate enlargement so that they can detect it early and get immediate treatment. So, you do not need to take years to look at the problems, but you should be aware of the symptoms and if any of these symptoms show that there might be the onset of a prostate cancer, you can get immediate treatment. As I said that is usually very effective. So, we do our best to prevent it. We then make sure, especially in high risk cases, that we find it early if it ever develops.
Obviously the aim is not to let it develop but if it does we can detect it early and then we improve the treatment. There is a training on the pharmacogenetics parts, i.e. how drugs are metabolized, how they work, how they might not work or cause side effects. We have certain genes and these genes break down a certain drug. So, one drug, which might be a chemo therapy drug, is metabolized by one gene. If this gene is deactivated by some genetic variations, then the chemo therapy drug might not work or might cause very severe side effects. Then, what we can do is we test this number of genes and then we can look at anti-cancer drugs, anything to do with cancer not just chemo therapy but all the surrounding drugs as well. Then, we can see how fast they are broken down. You will see this kind of table. These are the different substances. This is the effect. This drug will have a normal effect. Some people have a lightly higher effect because their drugs might be activated more quickly. Then, the breakdown is different. For some people is 100% for some drugs, some is 95%, some people have more common adverse reactions which should be avoided at the recommended dose that might also differ. If an alternative is recommended, if the drug is not really broken down at all, then you would see here that an alternative drug would be advisable. That is the end of chapter 25, prostate cancer and genetics.