Bone Health Sensor
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Bone Health Sensor
Bone Health Sensor and genetics
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Section 1: Bone Health and genetics
Chapter 27: Bone health and genetics. This is a specific training for the Bone Health Sensor for Osteoporosis. This test can be found here. This is the Bone Health Sensor. Here you can see, it is meant also for prevention. In terms of early diagnosis, this test does not really give you additional benefits. The other thing is improved treatment. Let us explain the concept of osteoporosis.
In a normal healthy individual, bone density, the strength of the bones, increases with age. Up until the age of 25 to 30, the bones become progressively stronger. Then, bone density begins to decrease again. This is a normal process. In an unhealthy individual, they keep strong bones until the end of life span. However, there are genetic variations that speed up this breakdown of bone mineral density. This is what happens. They also build up strong bones, but they lose them more quickly. This can then lead to osteopenia, which is the first stage of osteoporosis, and then osteoporosis where arms and other bones might break due to small stress on them like lifting a heavy bag and so on.
So, certain genetic variations increase your bone mineral density loss. Here are a number of genes that play a role in this. This is actually a cut-off from the report again. The genes that are of interest are these ones. They are Col1A1, VDR vitamin D receptor, ESR1 and LCT. These here are again like a catalogue number for genetic variations. In case you do not know what all of this means, please do watch the training for simple disease risk statistics. This here is scientific bla bla, what kind of variation it is?
This here is the actual genetic result for the person. Every person, with some minor exceptions, has two copies of each gene. We look at one genetic variation in one location and if there is a G, it might mean one thing and if there is a T, it might mean increased risk. Here, the genotype is GG, i.e. there is a G in each one of those genes. There is also G/G, C/C, T/T. Here is the odds ratio. Again, if you do not know what the odds ratio is, please do watch simple disease risk statistics. Here the risk is 1 fold, so there is no increased risk. Here, it is actually a protective genetic variation, therefore the risk is lower, 0.61 fold through this genetic variation. Here, the risk is 1 fold and the LCT gene does not really have a direct influence on osteoporosis, but I will explain that later. RESPOND means that due to this genetic result, this person’s response to a certain treatment or to a certain lifestyle interaction specifically well. We will also look at what that means. PROTECTIVE means that this genetic variation can protect you and reduce your risk of osteoporosis. Here is risk genotype.
Then, looking at the genes and this is again a cut-off from the report. You will find this for every gene in the report and you will be able to read up the science. This is the gene name. This is what the gene does. This is the result. So, from the three possible results, G/G on both, T/T on both genes or G and T, one in each gene. This person has G/G like 81 % of the general population. They have no increased risk of osteoporosis. They have a very effective phosphonate therapy, which is a preventive drug that you can take to reduce bone mineral density loss. This is why this person is responding for something. G/T means that you have an increased risk, 26 % higher. This phosphonate therapy is less effective. T/T means also that this phosphonate therapy is less effective and the risk is even higher, 1.78 fold. Here are the scientific publications, in case you are interested.
This is the next gene. That is the vitamin D receptor. G/G means protection against osteoporosis. This is a lower odds ratio. Hormone replacement therapy is effective in preventing osteoporosis. So, a person or a woman who might show increased bone mineral density loss, and is considering a hormone replacement therapy after menopause, this therapy would be effective also in helping maintain bone density. Raloxifene is a drug in this case is less effective and phosphonate is effective, but there might also be an increased risk where this phosphonate is less effective or an even higher increased risk for this phosphonate. Again, this is the science behind it, in case you are interested.
This is the next gene. 15 % have C/C with no increased risk. 51 % or half of the population has twice as high risk. 34 % have 4 fold risk. This here is the LCT gene. There is some background information I need to tell you. This is actually not a bone relevant gene, but it is the gene that causes lactose intolerance. If people have a C/C genotype, C on both copies, it means that they do not produce the enzyme necessary to digest lactose milk sugar with increasing age. In people who have a C/C, there is a very high probability that they would become lactose intolerant over time, while the other genotypes would not. Studies have shown that people who have this genotype or lactose intolerant take in significantly less calcium than others. So, what we would do is we would intervene if we know that this person takes up especially little calcium because they do not eat milk products which have a lot of calcium, then we would specifically make sure that this person eats significantly more calcium than another person without this intolerance would do.
So, C/C means lactose intolerant with a very high likelihood during the course of lifespan and the other ones mean no increased risk of lactose intolerance and normal calcium in-take. Alright. Here is the overview. As you have seen, there was one gene which reduced the risk. Actually, we have a lower risk than an odds ratio of 1. So, it is protective. The lowest risk can be shown on this scale here. It is an odds ratio of 0.61. The highest risk is 7 fold risk. This means that if you have the worst genes, your risk is 7 fold higher to develop osteoporosis compared to a person with the optimal genes. this arrow here shows where you are in this. The average risk would be the risk of the general population and this person has significantly higher risk, but it might also be lower. So, you are protected compared to everybody else. Then, the other question is whether you capacity to absorb calcium is normal or reduced depending on whether you are genetically predisposed to be lactose intolerant or not. In this case, you are not.
Section 2: Prevention
As I said, this program is useful for prevention, not for early detection but also for better treatment. So, let us look at prevention. Prevention is the most important thing for osteoporosis, because with prevention, with the right minerals taken in at the right amounts and the right lifespan intervention, you can really slow down bone mineral density loss. It is hard to rebuild lost bones, but it is possible and quite effective to maintain it if you know that you are at a higher risk. Prevention is like saving money. If you start too late, it is effective. If you start earlier on, you have many options. If you start in the middle age, then you still have a potential, but if you start when it already starts to affect your health, then even prevention is not going to be effective anymore.
So, the preventive measures again are all written in a very simple language in the report. You can check out the different interventions that we recommend. Just to summarize it quickly: eat more calcium is a one very important aspect, especially in the case of lactose intolerant, who should eat much more calcium and other sources of calcium. He should make sure that he gets vitamin D, either through eating sea fish or food containing vitamin D or through supplements. The same goes for calcium. Depending on your risk, we do have a supplement that can be created based on your genes to make sure that you get the right amount of calcium and the right amount of vitamin D. Then, vitamin D can also be produced when you go outside, when your skin is radiated by UV rays from the sun. So, radioactivity might also help you.
Then, you should avoid phosphate-containing products. Phosphate is kind of the opposite of salt calcium supplementation. Calcium supplementation leads to building strong bones and phosphate leads to extracting calcium from bones. So, having a lot of phosphate into your food, which is sausages, meat, and chocolate. Even some types of cheese have more phosphate than calcium, therefore they are not beneficial for prevention. Then, you should reduce food that contains a lot of phosphate. With the program, especially with the nutrition program, we can help you to avoid these types of food.
Next, you should favour sports that put stress on bones. If you have the tendency to lose bone density, you should really stress them, because this then activates your body to build up stronger bones again. The sports that would really strengthen your bones are weight training and maybe jogging. Swimming is not so good because it does not put so much stress on you bones. Vibration plate has actually been shown to put stress on bones uniformly and maintain bone density quite well. You should avoid alcohol and you should not smoke, not just because of skin cancer or lung cancer, it is also detrimental to bone health. You should avoid high sodium. Using a lot of table salt, phytic acid, I mean acid like cysteine or thymine, oxalic acid or caffeine is detrimental to bone health and bone mineral density. Again, if you also order the nutrition plan, the Nutrition Sensor, this will all be taken into account when recommending certain types of food. You should also treat diseases such as hormone disorders, stomach, intestine, kidneys, liver and joint disease because progressing diseases in these categories can lead to an increased breakdown of bone mineral density.
Section 3: Treatment
That was the prevention part. The next question is better treatment. This is also a cut-off from the report. There are different types of therapies that can be used to slow down bone mineral density loss. Genetics has shown that some of these treatments are better for some genetic types and not good for other genetic types. If we look at this. Bisphosphorate therapy is generally effective. So, it is in the high area. The hormone replacement therapy, obviously for women not for men, is also quite effective. If you combine hormone replacement therapy with alendronate, then it is a reduced effectiveness. With Alendronate and Raloxifene, it is also reduced. With Raloxifene by itself, it is also reduced.
So, if you get treatment you will find out which kind of drugs and preventive substances are going to be more or effective or less effective for you. This is going to be different from one person to the next. We can really optimize treatment. Here you would see that these therapies would be beneficial, while these are going to be less effective. Now, there are certain drugs. There is a training on the pharmaco sensor, which explains how drugs are broken down, how they activate some drugs, and how they cause side effects with other drugs. We can do this test and we can find out which kind of drugs that are used in the therapy for osteoporosis, how fast they are broken down. If you look at this. This here are the different drugs in the list. This is the effect. Normal or even stronger effects are possible. The breakdown varies. Something is broken down faster, here it is 150 %, or slower, here it is only 18 % breakdown.
Then, how common you would expect side effects, more common or normal. The recommended daily dose here can actually vary quite a lot from one person to the next. If you see very low breakdown speed, a low recommended daily dose would be advisable to find out an alternative drug if possible. As you can see, it is advisable here and here. You can go through this list, if you ever need a painkiller in this case and you should look for some that have normal breakdown, normal action and normal dosage, otherwise you need to adjust the dosage.
That is the end of chapter 27 for the Bone Health Sensor.